n physics, Thomson scattering is the elastic scattering of electromagnetic radiation by a free charged particle, as described by classical electromagnetism. The electric field of the incident wave accelerates the particle, causing it to in turn emit radiation at the same frequency as the incident wave, and thus, the wave is scattered. Thomson scattering is an important phenomenon in plasma physics and was first explained by the physicist J.J. Thomson.
As long as the motion of the particle is non-relativistic (i.e. its speed is much less than the speed of light), the main cause of the acceleration of the particle will be due to the electric field component of the incident wave, and the magnetic field can be neglected. The particle will move in the direction of the oscillating electric field, resulting in electromagnetic dipole radiation. The moving particle radiates most strongly in a direction perpendicular to its motion and that radiation will be polarized along the direction of its motion. Therefore, depending on where an observer is located, the light scattered from a small volume element may appear to be more or less polarized. Thomson scattering geometry.png
The electric fields of the incoming and observed beam can be divided up into those components lying in the plane of observation (formed by the incoming and observed beams) and those components perpendicular to that plane. Those components lying in the plane are referred to as "radial" and those perpendicular to the plane are "tangential", since this is how they appear to the observer.
The diagram on the right is in the plane of observation. It shows the radial component of the incident electric field causing a component of motion of the charged particles at the scattering point which also lies in the plane of observation. It can be seen that the amplitude of the wave observed will be proportional to the cosine of χ, the angle between the incident and observed beam. The intensity, which is the square of the amplitude, will then be diminished by a factor of cos2(χ). It can be seen that the tangential components (perpendicular to the plane of the diagram) will not be affected in this way.