In telecommunications, RS-232 is a standard for serial communication transmission of data. It formally defines the signals connecting between a DTE (data terminal equipment) such as a computer terminal, and a DCE (data circuit-terminating equipment, originally defined as data communication equipment), such as a modem. The RS-232 standard is commonly used in computer serial ports. The standard defines the electrical characteristics and timing of signals, the meaning of signals, and the physical size and pinout of connectors. The current version of the standard is TIA-232-F Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange, issued in 1997.
An RS-232 serial port was once a standard feature of a personal computer, used for connections to modems, printers, mice, data storage, uninterruptible power supplies, and other peripheral devices. However, RS-232 is hampered by low transmission speed, large voltage swing, and large standard connectors. In modern personal computers, USB has displaced RS-232 from most of its peripheral interface roles. Many computers do not come equipped with RS-232 ports and must use either an external USB-to-RS-232 converter or an internal expansion card with one or more serial ports to connect to RS-232 peripherals. RS-232 devices are widely used, especially in industrial machines, networking equipment and scientific instruments.
RS-232 was first introduced in 1962 by the Radio Sector of the Electronic Industries Alliance. The original DTEs were electromechanical teletypewriters, and the original DCEs were (usually) modems. When computer terminals (smart and dumb) began to be used, they were often designed to be interchangeable with teletypewriters, and so supported RS-232. The C revision of the standard was issued in 1969 in part to accommodate the electrical characteristics of these devices.
Since the requirements of devices such as computers, printers, test instruments, POS terminals and so on were not foreseen by the standard, designers implementing an RS-232 compatible interface on their equipment often interpreted the standard idiosyncratically. The resulting common problems were non-standard pin assignment of circuits on connectors, and incorrect or missing control signals. The lack of adherence to the standards produced a thriving industry of breakout boxes, patch boxes, test equipment, books, and other aids for the connection of disparate equipment. A common deviation from the standard was to drive the signals at a reduced voltage. Some manufacturers therefore built transmitters that supplied +5 V and -5 V and labeled them as "RS-232 compatible".
Later personal computers (and other devices) started to make use of the standard so that they could connect to existing equipment. For many years, an RS-232-compatible port was a standard feature for serial communications, such as modem connections, on many computers. It remained in widespread use into the late 1990s. In personal computer peripherals, it has largely been supplanted by other interface standards, such as USB. RS-232 is still used to connect older designs of peripherals, industrial equipment (such as PLCs), system console ports and special purpose equipment.
The standard has been renamed several times during its history as the sponsoring organization changed its name, and has been variously known as EIA RS-232, EIA 232, and most recently as TIA 232. The standard continued to be revised and updated by the Electronic Industries Alliance and since 1988 by the Telecommunications Industry Association (TIA). Revision C was issued in a document dated August 1969. Revision D was issued in 1986. The current revision is TIA-232-F Interface Between Data Terminal Equipment and Data Circuit-Terminating Equipment Employing Serial Binary Data Interchange, issued in 1997. Changes since Revision C have been in timing and details intended to improve harmonization with the ITU-T standard V.24, but equipment built to the current standard will interoperate with older versions.
Related ITU-T standards include V.24 (circuit identification) and V.28 (signal voltage and timing characteristics).
In revision D of EIA-232, the D-subminiature connector was formally included as part of the standard (it was only referenced in the appendix of RS 232 C). The voltage range was extended to +/- 25 volts, and the circuit capacitance limit was expressly stated as 2500 pF. Revision E of EIA 232 introduced a new, smaller, standard D-shell 26-pin "Alt A" connector, and made other changes to improve compatibility with CCITT standards V.24, V.28 and ISO 2110.
- ↑ Metering Glossary Landis + Gyr Tutorial (see EIA)
- ↑ S. Mackay, E. Wright, D. Reynders, J. Park, Practical Industrial Data Networks:Design, Installation and Troubleshooting, Newnes, 2004 ISBN 07506 5807X, pages 41-42