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Phantom, Imaging

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About

"Devices or objects in various imaging techniques used to visualize or enhance visualization by simulating conditions or patients anatomical organs encountered in the procedure. Phantoms are used very often in procedures employing or measuring x-irradiation or radioactive material to evaluate performance. Phantoms often have properties similar to human tissue. Water demonstrates absorbing properties similar to normal tissue, hence water-filled phantoms are used to map radiation levels. Phantoms are used also as teaching aids to simulate real conditions with x-ray or ultrasonic machines."[1]

Purpose

The purpose of performing Quality Checks (QC) is to increase protection to the public and radiation workers from unnecessary exposure to radiation according to state, federal regulations as well as American College Radiology (ACR) guidelines and to reduce the occurrence of misdiagnosis caused by faulty equipment and operator error.

Typically, a Medical Physicist's performs a QC Survey at the time of initial inspection/acceptance of the medical device and and annually thereafter. In addition, these professionals may hold master's or doctorate degree from an accredited college in radiological health, radiation sciences, physics, chemistry, environmental sciences, engineering or a related field and at least three years of professional, clinical and technical experience in the field of radiological physics, including the performance of quality control tests of diagnostic x-ray imaging, that was obtained under the supervision of an individual who meets the requirements of this section, except the requirement to hold a certificate/certification issued by the State Department.

Types

These types of QC phantoms are commonly use for ACR accreditation standards.

Chest X-Ray

AcrylicPhantoms76-2-1a

Chest X-Ray Phantom

Consists of four sheets of 25 cm x 25 cm x 2.3 cm clear acrylic, one sheet of 25 cm x 25 cm x 1 mm and one sheet of 25 cm x 25 cm x 2 mm type-1100 high-purity aluminum, and spacers to provide a 5.08 cm air gap; Weighs 8 kg (17.5 lb)[2]





Abdomen/Lumbar Spine

AcrylicPhantoms76-2-2a

Abdomen/Lumbar Spine Phantom

Consists of five sheets of 25 cm x 25 cm x 2.3 cm and one sheet of 25 cm x 25 cm x 5.08 cm clear acrylic to achieve a 17.78 cm thick phantom. In order to provide additional attenuation in the spinal region, a 7 cm x 25 cm x 4.5 mm thick piece of high-purity alloy aluminum is included. Weighs 17 kg (37 lb)[3]





Skull X-Ray

AcrylicPhantoms76-2-3a

Skull X-ray Phantom

Has the same configuration as the Chest Phantom, but without the air gap. Consists of four sheets of 25 cm x 25 cm x 2.3 cm clear acrylic, one sheet of 25 cm x 25 cm x 1 mm and one sheet of 25 cm x 25 cm x 2 mm high-purity alloy aluminum, and a center sheet of 25 cm x 25 cm x 5.08 cm clear acrylic; Weighs 12 kg (26.5 lb)[4]





Mammography Accreditation Phantom

18-220 200p

Mammographic Accreditation Phantom

The 4.4 cm-thick phantom is made of a 7 mm wax block insert containing 16 sets of test objects, a 3.4 cm thick acrylic base, and a 3 mm thick cover. The phantom approximates a 4.5 cm compressed breast of average glandular/adipose composition.






Ultrasound Phantom

84-350 200p

Ultrasound Phantom

At normal room temperature, Zerdine will accurately simulate the ultrasound characteristics found in human breast tissue. The phantom contains low-scatter masses in a range of sizes and depths, a calibrated volumetric test object, and an assortment of nylon monofilament target groups. It was designed to allow for assessment of linearity, axial and lateral resolution, depth calibration, dead zone measurement, volumetric calibration, and registration. The phantom is protected by an acrylic case and plastic membrane to facilitate scanning and minimize desiccation.


MRI Phantom

76-908 200p

MRI Phantom

Various sections are arranged within a cubical shape to make the phantom truly three-dimensional. It contains slice thickness measuring sections, and a void between the inserts to allow for a signal-producing solution. Slice thickness and resolution information can be obtained in all three directions (transaxial, coronal, and sagittal) without moving the phantom.




CT Phantom

76-424-4156 200p

CT Phantom

This essential phantom kit consists of three parts: an adult body phantom, an adult head phantom that doubles as a pediatric body phantom and the new pediatric head phantom, nested together for easy storage and convenient transport. (All are made of solid acrylic with diameters of 32, 16 and 10 cm, respectively.) Each part contains four probe holes around the perimeter, 90° apart and 1 cm from the edge and the pediatric head (center insert) has one probe hole in its center. The inside diameter of the holes is 1.31 cm. Each part includes five acrylic rods for plugging all the holes in the phantom. A sturdy storage and carrying case with wheels and pull handle that holds all three phantoms is included; as an option, a smaller case without wheels is available.

The CT Dose Phantoms were designed in accordance with the Food and Drug Administration’s performance standard for diagnostic x-ray systems, which includes regulations specifically applicable to CT systems (21 CFR 1020.33).

References

  1. From Iturralde, Dictionary and Handbook of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Imaging, 1990
  2. [Supertech Xray. Acrylic Phantoms for Diagnostic X-Ray. http://www.supertechx-ray.com/QualityControlPhantoms/AcrylicPhantoms76-2.html]
  3. [Supertech Xray. Acrylic Phantoms for Diagnostic X-Ray. http://www.supertechx-ray.com/QualityControlPhantoms/AcrylicPhantoms76-2.html]
  4. [Supertech Xray. Acrylic Phantoms for Diagnostic X-Ray. http://www.supertechx-ray.com/QualityControlPhantoms/AcrylicPhantoms76-2.html]

Links

Video

The use of Gelatine models in Ultrasound guided Intravenous Cannulation04:22

The use of Gelatine models in Ultrasound guided Intravenous Cannulation

Make your own ultrasound phantom

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